January 22, 2021
naming ionic and molecular compounds
Thus H2S(aq) = hydrosulfuric acid. To indicate that something is dissolved in water, we will use the phase label (aq) next to a chemical formula (where aq stands for “aqueous,” a word that describes something dissolved in water). This will be marked by the subscript "aq," as shown in the examples below. Ionic compounds are made up of a metal cation (named first) and a non-metal anion (named second). left of the metalloid staircase), it is a metal and the compound is "ionic.". Okay I have a chemistry question. Ionic compounds are solids that typically melt at high temperatures and boil at even higher temperatures. These are usually the transition metals. In cases like this, the charge of the metal ion is included as a Roman numeral in parentheses immediately following the metal name. b) Because the ions have the same magnitude of charge, we need only one of each to balance the charges. November 13, 2020, How to Name Ionic and Covalent Compounds The key difference between ionic and molecular compounds is that the ionic compounds have electrostatic attraction forces between cations and anions whereas the molecular compounds have only covalent chemical bonds between the atoms.. Chemical elements can join with each other to form chemical compounds. From the answers we derive, we place the compound in an appropriate category and then name it accordingly. For covalent compounds the process is simpler, as the ratio of elements is indicated by the numerical prefixes. Search. Some examples are given in Table 1. These elements will be found on the far right side of the periodic table - to the right of the metalloid staircase. Some other examples are shown in Table 7. Several other examples of this nomenclature are shown in Table 8. g) Using the names of the ions, this ionic compound is named calcium chloride. What is the stem of fluorine used in molecule names? Chemical Compounds Practice Quiz. Find the ratio of positive ions to negative ions that results in a net charge of zero. Exposure to small amounts of Cr(VI) can lead to damage of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and immune systems, as well as the kidneys, liver, blood, and skin. CHEM 1114 - Introduction to Chemistry by Shirley Wacowich-Sgarbi is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. Because this acid contains a bromine atom, the name is hydrobromic acid. This module describes an approach that is used to name simple ionic and molecular compounds, such as NaCl, CaCO3, and N2O4. c) Because HF(g) is in gaseous form, we name it hydrogen fluoride. The oxyacid suffix replacements are. The elements bind together via chemical bonds that have ionic or covalent … sodium hydroxide) and on the other side have its chemical formula (e.g. Covalent co… Ionic compounds are formed of a metal (cation) and a non-metal (anion). a) iodine trifluoride b) xenon trioxide c) disulfur decafluoride, a) perchloric acid b) hydroiodic acid, a) HF(aq) b) HNO3(aq) c) H2C2O4(aq), a) CsCl b) BaO c) K2S d) BeCl2 e) HBr f) AlF3. The chemistry of these compounds is explored in more detail in later chapters of this text, but for now, it will suffice to note that many acids release hydrogen ions, H+, when dissolved in water. Note that the definition of acid includes dissolved in water. a) As an aqueous binary acid, the acid’s name is hydro- + stem name + -ic acid. 14. .Which of these formulas represent molecules? b) AlBr3 consists of aluminum and bromine; we call it aluminum bromide. b) Because this acid is derived from the sulfate ion, the name of the acid is the stem of the anion name + -ic acid. a) Because the ammonium ion has a 1+ charge and the sulfide ion has a 2− charge, we need two ammonium ions to balance the charge on a single sulfide ion. We hope so, as this process is basically akin to learning the alphabet before speaking the English language. In this case, however, the root takes a slightly different form of “sulfur” (the same as the element name). a) dioxygen dichloride b) dinitrogen trisulfide c) xenon tetrafluoride. The bonding characteristics of inorganic molecular compounds are different from ionic compounds, and they are named using a different system as well. Reduce if needed The numbers of atoms of each element are designated by the Greek prefixes shown in Table 6. This is called the "criss-cross" or "crossover" method. Three examples are below. Write the formulas for the following compounds: a) phosphorus pentachloride b) dinitrogen monoxide c) iodine heptafluoride, d) carbon tetrachloride e) disulfur difluoride f) iodine pentabromide, a) PCl5 b) N2O c) IF7 d) CCl4 e) S2F2 f) IBr5. To deal with this situation, we use a naming method that is somewhat similar to that used for ionic compounds, but with added prefixes to specify the numbers of atoms of each element. Oxyacids are named by changing the ending of the anion to –ic, and adding “acid;” H2CO3 is carbonic acid. a) Identify the cation and anion. That means all acids, binary and oxyacid, will be aqueous, or dissolved in water. Naming compounds have never been so simple! This is cobalt. This older naming convention remains in use by some segments of industry. Naming Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds are named using the name of the cation and anion that make up the compound. Translating binary acids from formula to name will end up in the format, Translating oxyacids from formula to name involves dropping the word hydrogen completely, replacing the anion’s suffix, and adding acid. Phosphoric acid is an ingredient in some soft drinks. Give the proper formula for each diatomic element. View Lab Report - Lab05_Naming Ionic and Molecular Compounds.docx from CHEMISTRY 301 at University of Karachi. The cation has the same name as its element. These are usually negatively charged "clumps" or "chunks" of ions that form bonds to the oppositely charged ion (usually a cation).Follow the same naming conventions as with monatomic ions, except for the step wherein the suffix is changed to -ide. Give the formula and name for each ionic compound formed between the two listed ions. For example, consider binary ionic compounds of iron and chlorine. (As a comparison, the molecular compound … Write the charges on the ions. The simplest of these are binary compounds, those containing only two elements, but we will also consider how to name ionic compounds containing polyatomic ions, and one specific, very important class of compounds known as acids – subsequent chapters in this text will focus on these compounds in great detail. a) HBr(aq) b) H2SO4 c) HF(g) d) HCN(aq) e) H2S(aq). November 7, 2020 23. Log in Sign up. The following ionic compounds are found in common household products. Thus, CO is named carbon monoxide, and CO2 is called carbon dioxide. 10. Binary acids are named using the prefix hydro-, changing the –ide suffix to –ic, and adding “acid;” HCl is hydrochloric acid. CO is a compound of carbon and oxygen; Co is the element cobalt. Write. Some of the worksheets below are Naming Compounds Worksheets : Covalent Compound Names and Formulas, Ionic & Covalent Compound Naming, Formulas and nomenclature of ionic and covalent compounds, Covalent Compounds Worksheet : Questions like Based of the properties of the following materials, determine whether they are made of primarily ionic compounds of covalent compounds… Some compounds contain polyatomic ions; the names of common polyatomic ions should be memorized. For example, KCl, an ionic compound that contains K+ and Cl- ions, is named … Iron typically exhibits a charge of either 2+ or 3+ (see Figure 2 in Chapter 4.2 Ionic and Molecular Compounds), and the two corresponding compound formulas are FeCl2 and FeCl3. These elements will be found on the far right side of the periodic table - to the right of the metalloid staircase.The simplest form of a covalent compound would be a non-metal / non-metal pair made of two single elements (NO for example). 3 - Chemical Quantities and Stoichiometry, 4 - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry, 7 - Quantum Mechanical View of the Atom, and Periodicity, 9 - Covalent Bonding and Molecular Orbitals, 10 - Liquids, Solids, and Intermolecular Forces, 15 - Applications of Acid-Base Equilibria, 16 - Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy, 18 - Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry, 20 - An Introduction to Organic Chemistry, 1 - Structural, Bonding, Molecular Properties, 2 - The Nature of Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes, 3 - Stereochemistry of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes: 3-D Structures of Molecules, 4 - The Study of Organic Reactions: An Overview, 10 - Substitution (SN2, SN1) and Elimination (E2, E1) Reactions, 11 - Mass Spectrometry and IR Spectroscopy, 13 - Conjugated Systems and UV Spectroscopy, 15 - Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution (E.A.S. Naming Ionic Compounds • Name these compounds: a) Cr2O3 b) FeCl2 c) CrO3 d) TiCl4 e) CoO f) MoS2. This is the cobalt(II) cation. Use every example found in this chapter – including those in the exercises. Molecular compounds areelectrically neutral. . Since these are different substances with different properties, they cannot both have the same name (they cannot both be called carbon oxide). Write the formulas of the following compounds: a) chlorine dioxide b) dinitrogen tetraoxide c) potassium phosphide, d) silver(I) sulfide e) aluminum nitride f) silicon dioxide. a) HF(aq) b) HNO2 c) HClO4 d) H2SO4 e) H2CrO4(aq) f) H3PO4(aq) g) HClO(aq), a) hydrofluoric acid b) nitrous acid c) perchloric acid d) sulphuric acid e) chromic acid, f) phosphoric acid g) hypochlorous acid. For covalent compounds the process is simpler, as the ratio of elements is indicated by the numerical prefixes. Naming compounds that contain metals with multiple charges is done much the same way as naming other ionic compounds with one crucial difference: the charge of the metal is included in the compound name using roman numerals. 13. How to Name Compounds • Are the ions monatomic or polyatomic? • Chemists use nomenclature rules to clearly name compounds. Formulas of Covalent Compounds • Only use numerical prefixes for the first element when the molecule contains more than one of that atom. A cationis a positively charged ion 2. We have discovered how to change chemical formulae into names of chemicals. (And H2O is usually called water, not dihydrogen monoxide.) 7. The first thing we need to do is figure out what kind of compound we are working with, as ionic and covalent compounds have very different naming systems. The simplest name, “iron chloride,” will, in this case, be ambiguous, as it does not distinguish between these two compounds. October 11, 2020, 5 Great Ways to Get Chemistry Help All acids have some similar properties. STUDY. Naming binary (two-element) molecular compounds is similar to naming simple ionic compounds. c) In this case, there is a 2+ charge on the atom, so it is a cation. Chemical Reactions and Equations, 6.1 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations, Chapter 7. . There are a few common names that you will encounter as you continue your study of chemistry. Examples are shown in Table 2. For example, K2O is called potassium oxide. For example, carbon and oxygen can form the compounds CO and CO2. To name oxyacids: For example, consider H2CO3 (which you might be tempted to call “hydrogen carbonate”). Browse. As with ionic compounds, the system for naming covalent compounds enables chemists to write the molecular formula from the name and vice versa. Find the ratio of positive ions to negative ions that results in a net charge of zero. Ionic and molecular compounds are named using somewhat-different methods. Some compounds containing hydrogen are members of an important class of substances known as acids, and these compounds have interesting chemical properties. September 27, 2020. Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions, 7.4 Other Units for Solution Concentrations, 8.2 Quantization of the Energy of Electrons, Chapter 9. When two vowels are adjacent, the a in the Greek prefix is usually dropped. Naming Covalent Compounds (or "Molecular Compounds") When Given the Formula Covalent compounds, often called "molecular compounds," consist of two non-metals; a non-metal / non-metal pair. In earlier years, chemists named ionic compounds containing metals with multiple charges using the suffixes. What about converting compound names into compound formulas? Each of these two types of compounds has its own naming system and Lewis dot structure. The formula is AlPO4, and the name of the compound is aluminum phosphate. The anions in these compounds have a fixed negative charge (S2−, Se2− , N3−, Cl−, SO42−, O−2, and F−), and the compounds must be neutral. Rules for Naming Molecular Compounds: Remove the ending of the second element, and add “ide” just like in ionic compounds. You can choose binary, polyatomic, and variable charge ionic compounds, as well as molecular compounds. When naming ionic compounds, all of the information you’ll need is on the periodic table. Give the proper name for each molecule. binary compound: compound containing two different elements. To get 6+, we need three iron(II) ions, and to get 6−, we need two phosphate ions. Naming compounds that contain metals with multiple charges is done much the same way as naming other ionic compounds with one crucial difference: the charge of the metal is included in the compound name using roman numerals. 19. If the compound is ionic, does the metal form ions of only one type (fixed charge) or more than one type (variable charge)? Many processed foods also contain significant amounts of sodium added to them as a variety of ionic compounds. Three examples are below. . To describe the composition of a chemical compound. False. When naming compounds, you need to understand these different rules, as well as how to spot clues that will help you properly name the compounds. The common table salt we use on our foods is an ionic sodium compound. True. Write the formulas for each compound: a) potassium phosphate b) copper(II) sulfate c) calcium chloride, d) titanium dioxide e) ammonium nitrate, f) sodium bisulfate (the common name for sodium hydrogen sulfate). 20. You should know the Roman numerals for 1 (I), 2 (II), 3 (III), 4 (IV), 5 (V), and 6 (VI). Thus, FeCl2 is iron(II) chloride and FeCl3 is iron(III) chloride. The first thing we need to do is figure out what kind of compound we are working with, as ionic and covalent compounds have very different naming systems. True. Because the metal ions in questions a) to f) have a variable charge, we must figure out the charge of the metal ion by ensuring that the total number of positive charges in each compound must equal the total number of negative charges. However, we will briefly discuss the important compounds known as oxyacids, compounds that contain hydrogen, oxygen, and at least one other element, and are bonded in such a way as to impart acidic properties to the compound (you will learn the details of this in a later chapter). Enclosing the formula for the ammonium ion in parentheses, we have (NH4)2S. An anionis a negatively charged ion. Acids are a type of covalent compound that release hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. Give the formula and name for each ionic compound formed between the two listed ions. These elements will be found on the far right side of the periodic table - … The name of an ionic compound also gives you information about the oxidation numbers of the elements. Compounds containing polyatomic ions are named similarly to those containing only monatomic ions, except there is no need to change to an –ide ending, since the suffix is already present in the name of the anion. Follow the same naming conventions as with monatomic ions, except for the step wherein the suffix is changed to. Naming basic chemical compounds is essential if you want to succeed in chemistry, since the name of the compound clearly defines what it is. a) Al2S3 b) ZnS c) MgI2, a) aluminum sulfide b) zinc sulfide c) magnesium iodide. Naming Ionic Compounds. For ionic compounds, start by listing the component ions. We have already mentioned that citrus fruits contain acid; among other compounds, they contain citric acid, H3C6H5O7(aq). Formulas of Molecular Compounds • Table 10. NaOH). The oxyacid suffix replacements are -ate becomes -ic and -ite becomes -ous. a) XeF2 b) O2F2 c) SF6. An ionic compound is named first by its cation and then by its anion. 22. The following website provides practice with naming chemical compounds and writing chemical formulas. Why are sodium compounds used so much? These two compounds are then unambiguously named iron(II) chloride and iron(III) chloride, respectively. Other examples are provided in Table 4. Her investigation eventually linked the illnesses to groundwater contaminated by Cr(VI) used by Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E) to fight corrosion in a nearby natural gas pipeline. you ask… Well it's also possible to have ionic compounds that contain polyatomic ions. Binary acids are composed of hydrogen and one other element, while oxyacids contain hydrogen, oxygen, and another element. Of industry ; ” H2CO3 is carbonic acid exists primarily in either the Cr ( VI groundwater! Anion ( named second ) that you will encounter as you encounter them an inorganic compound, place. English language 6−, we need two phosphate ions a ) K+ and P3− naming ionic and molecular compounds... 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